کلیه حقوق متعلق به وبلاگ برق - فیزیک می باشد و کپی برداری از مطالب در وبلاگ ها و وب سایت های دیگر فقط با ذکر منبع مجاز می باشد .
مدیر وبلاگ : حامد ص
These dual-channel downconverter and direct-quadrature-modulator devices both feature flexible integrated frequency-synthesizer and oscillator circuitry and broad bandwidths...
A dual-channel downconverter and direct-quadrature-modulator serve wireless communications infrastructure applications to 4 GHz.
Wireless service providers face an ever-increasing demand for capacity on their networks, due to handheld devices that can process voice, data, and video. Not only must wireless infrastructure architects implement versatile systems using multiple data standards and frequency bands, but they must do so while occupying as little space and power as possible. To keep pace with the needs of infrastructure designers, Hittite Microwave Corp. has developed a new receiver and transmitter integrated-circuit (IC) chipset suitable for a wide range of cellular applications, from femtocells to macro base stations. The chipset features the model HMC1190LP6GE dual-channel downconverter, with integrated fractional-N phase-lock loop (PLL) synthesizer and voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO), for use with receivers. Also included is the model HMC1197LP7FE direct quadrature modulator, with fractional-N PLL frequency-synthesizer circuitry and VCO, for use with transmitters.
The two new ICs (Fig. 1) combine for efficient low-power operation over wide bandwidths, supporting a wide range of wireless communications standards. The HMC1190LP6GE downconverter IC, for example, covers an RF range of 700 to 3500 MHz, with typical power dissipation of only 2.34 W. But power consumption can be reduced further by means of external bias control pins, which allow high-speed optimization of power consumption under changing operating environments. This externally controlled enable/disable feature—combined with RF and external LO ports matched to 50 Ω- make it possible to dynamically reduce power consumption as conditions allow.
1. Model HMC1190LP6GE is a dual frequency downconverter with integrated VCO and synthesizer circuitry, while model HMC1197LP7FE is a direct modulator also with synthesizer and VCO circuitry.
With its integrated VCO and frequency-synthesizer circuitry, the HMC1190LP6GE is designed to provide excellent third-order-intercept (IP3) performance, as well as outstanding control of 2 x 2 spurious products. Unlike conventional narrowband frequency downconverters that are geared for only one or two wireless communications standards, the HMC1190LP6GE supports both high- and low-side LO frequency conversion plans across its full bandwidth. It incorporates a single-ended input port, with inputs converted to differential signals by means of an on-chip RF balanced-unbalanced (balun) circuit.
The HMC1190LP6GE incorporates a passive mixer core with high linearity and high-linearity intermediate-frequency (IF) amplifiers to achieve its excellent frequency-downconversion performance. It boasts RF-to-IF isolation of typically better than 45 dB, with LO leakage at the RF port of typically only -55 to -60 dBm. The 2 x 2 spurious products are controlled to -70 dBm, while channel-to-channel isolation of 50 dB on the downconverter help simplify filtering requirements. The dual downconverter delivers a wide dynamic range for a wide range of wireless standards. High input IP3 (IIP3) performance reaches +24 dBm for frequencies to 3500 MHz (Fig. 2). At the other end of the dynamic range, low noise figure of 9 dB enables the HMC1190LP6GE to contribute to excellent receiver sensitivity, meeting the most demanding wireless receiver applications.
2. This plot shows input IP3 performance as a function of frequency for the HMC1190LP6GE dual downconverter.
Additionally, the HMC1190LP6GE dual downconverter provides conversion gain that ranges from 6.2 dB at 2700 MHz to 8.4 dB at 900 MHz. It exhibits input 1-dB compression at power levels of +12 dBm at 2700 MHz and typically +10.7 dBm at 900 MHz. A summary of the dual downconverter’s performance can be found in Table 1.
The HMC1190LP6GE downconverter IC is ideal for diversity receivers in third-generation (3G) and fourth-generation (4G) cellular systems, as well as in multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) receiver architectures. Although it includes an internal VCO, its external VCO input port allows it to lock to external sources, enabling cascaded LO architectures for MIMO applications. Two separate charge-pump outputs enable separate loop filters optimized for both the integrated or external VCOs, with seamless switching possible between external and internal VCOs during operation for dynamically optimized performance. In addition, programmable RF output phase control makes possible phase adjustments and synchronization of multiple HMC1190LP6GE ICs in MIMO and phased-array beam-forming systems.
The HMC1190LP6GE downconverter provides a configurable LO output mute function and an “exact frequency mode” in which the IC’s fractional-N frequency synthesizer circuitry can be programmed to generate fractional frequencies with 0-Hz frequency error. Another powerful function is the capability to change frequencies without changing the phase of the output signal, which can greatly boost the efficiency of digital-predistortion (DPD) loops. The multifunction HMC1190LP6GE IC is housed in a RoHS compliant 6 x 6 mm leadless QFN package.
On the transmitter side, the model HMC1197LP7FE direct quadrature modulator also covers a broad frequency range, suitable for delivering digital modulation to wireless systems from 0.1 to 4.0 GHz [including 3G and 4G cellular, broadband wireless access (BWA), and Industrial-Scientific-Medical (ISM)-band applications]. Table 2 provides a sample of its performance. The low-noise direct modulator requires minimal external components and serves as a low-cost alternative to more complicated double-upconversion modulation approaches. Figure 3 highlights the wideband, high linearity performance of the HMC1197LP7FE. The highly integrated modulator/PLL/VCO delivers +10 dBm and better than +30 dBm output IP3 across all cellular infrastructure frequency bands from 400 to 4000 MHz. In addition, the low output noise floor (as low as -160 dBm/Hz) helps to maintain excellent signal-to-noise ratio for modulated signals.
3. The HMC1197LP7FE direct modulator IC features excellent dynamic range performance across its frequency range.
The single-ended RF output port is matched to 50 Ω with no external components, while the auxiliary LO output enables the HMC1197LP7FE to distribute identical frequency and phase signals to multiple destinations within a transmitter or receiver. An integrated programmable-bandwidth lowpass filter (LPF) in the LO path ensures little or no LO contribution to modulator sideband rejection. Sixteen programmable LPF bands enable true wideband operation, eliminating the need for band-specific harmonic filtering hardware and allowing agile LO frequency filtering for different band plans during and after deployment.
Figure 4 offers an example of how the HMC1197LP7FE direct modulator and various other ICs can be used to assemble a complete transmitter for cellular communications applications. Differential in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) input signals are applied to the model HMC900LP5E baseband tunable lowpass filter and model HMC960LP4E digital variable gain amplifier (VGA) (both also from Hittite) to remove unwanted harmonic content, as well as to set I and Q signal strength. These differential signals are then fed to the HMC1197LP7E direct modulator, which requires only a power supply and crystal reference oscillator to then generate virtually any modulation format in any cellular frequency band.
4. This is an example of a wideband direct-conversion transmitter based on the HMC1197LP7FE direct modulator IC.
Figure 5 shows the PLL section common to both the HMC1190LP6GE downconverter and the HMC1197LP7FE modulator. The PLL section features a low figure-of-merit (FOM) noise floor of -227 dBm/Hz in fractional-frequency mode and -230 dBm/Hz in integer-frequency mode. The integrated root-mean-square (RMS) jitter is less than 150 fs. The modulator’s internal VCO circuitry can generate frequencies from 50 to 4100 MHz, while the PLL circuitry also accepts external VCO signals. This allows both the HMC1190LP6GE and the HMC1197LP7FE ICs to lock to external VCOs and enables cascaded LO architectures for MIMO radio applications.
5. This is a figure of merit versus frequency for the PLL/VCO section integrated into the HMC1190LP6GE and HMC1197LP7FE devices.
The PLL section’s integrated phase detector and delta-sigma modulator can operate to 100 MHz, permitting frequency synthesis with wide loop bandwidths and excellent spurious performance. In the HMC1197LP7FE modulator—as well as the HMC1190LP6GE downconverter—two separate charge-pump outputs enable separate loop filters for both the integrated and external VCOs, with seamless switching between internal and external VCOs. Also, the HMC1197LP7FE modulator, like the HMC1190LP6GE , can phase-adjust and synchronize multiple transmit and receiver ICs from Hittite for scalable MIMO and beam-forming architectures.
The HMC1190LP6GE and the HMC1197LP7FE ICs feature stable performance over a wide temperature range, from -40 to +85°C. Their high levels of integration help simplify many wireless and cellular receiver and transmitter system designs at the infrastructure level, and their programmable power-consumption control helps “modulate” operating expenses for wireless base stations. In addition, with the broad frequency ranges covered by both of these ICs, one device can be used for a wide variety of different communications standards.
Hittite Microwave Corp., 2 Elizabeth Dr., Chelmsford, MA 01824; (978) 250-3333, FAX: (978) 2500-3373, www.hittite.com.
نوع مطلب :
برچسب ها :
لینک های مرتبط :
سه شنبه 23 مرداد 1397 08:01 ق.ظ
Appreciate it. Lots of advice!
how can i get viagra uk viagra online with prescription online pharmacy order pfizer viagra how old to buy viagra buy viagra where how to buy viagra online without a prescription buy viagra internet best place to buy generic viagra sildenafil price uk
شنبه 16 تیر 1397 06:06 ق.ظ
As the aadmin of thgis web pagge is wߋrking, no doubt
veгy soon it will be renowned, duｅ to its feature contents.
شنبه 2 تیر 1397 05:07 ب.ظ
Whɑt a inf᧐rmation of un-ambiguity and preserveness οf valuable knoѡ-how rеgarding unpredicted emotions.
سه شنبه 29 خرداد 1397 09:48 ب.ظ
I'll ｒight awaʏ grab уour rss feed aѕ I can't find yoսr e-mail
subscription link оr e-newsletter service. Ɗo you have any?
Kindly lett mе recognize in orxer that Ι may subscribe.
یکشنبه 27 خرداد 1397 04:58 ب.ظ
Hi, Neat post. Thｅre'ѕ a problem with yoᥙr site in web explorer, coulɗ test thiѕ?
IE nonetһeless iss the mardket leader аnd a hige sectiοn of othеr folks wiull mіss үouг
excellent writing ƅecause of this probⅼem.
دوشنبه 7 خرداد 1397 12:32 ب.ظ
Many thanks, Useful stuff.
cialis 30 day trial coupon cialis rckenschmerzen buy original cialis cialis for daily use cialis online nederland generic cialis 20mg tablets cialis online holland cialis generic availability generic low dose cialis low cost cialis 20mg
چهارشنبه 26 اردیبهشت 1397 10:53 ق.ظ
Excellen blog here! Also your web site loads up fast! What web
host are you using? Can I get your aaffiliate link to your
host? I wish my site loadedd up as quickly as yours lol
چهارشنبه 5 اردیبهشت 1397 11:00 ق.ظ
Good data. Thanks.
viagra online canada buy viagra uk without prescription sildenafil viagra where can i buy viagra over the counter online viagra order where yo buy viagra can you buy viagra without prescriptions where can i order viagra online uk viagra prices where buy viagra
سه شنبه 4 اردیبهشت 1397 04:12 ق.ظ
You really mwke iit seemm soo easy with yyour presentation bbut I fihd this matter to bee actually something
which I think I would never understand. It sewms tooo cpmplicated andd extremely broad foor me.
I'm lookng forward for ypur next post, I'll try to get the haang oof it!
شنبه 1 اردیبهشت 1397 05:41 ق.ظ
Do yyou have anny video of that? I'd like to ffind outt some additiohal information.
یکشنبه 5 فروردین 1397 02:28 ق.ظ
Cheers! I appreciate this.
click here to buy cialis ou trouver cialis sur le net cialis side effects dangers side effects for cialis cialis for daily use acheter cialis kamagra cialis daily cialis 20mg preis cf generic cialis in vietnam cialis 20mg
پنجشنبه 2 فروردین 1397 10:27 ب.ظ
With thanks. Numerous content!
where to buy cialis in ontario american pharmacy cialis cialis farmacias guadalajara cialis 5 mg effetti collateral cialis dosage rezeptfrei cialis apotheke cialis pills cialis vs viagra tadalafil tablets cialis online
چهارشنبه 16 اسفند 1396 12:19 ق.ظ
سلام دوستان، بخش خوبی از نوشتن و خواندن خوب در مورد نظر داد
این مکان، من واقعا از این لذت می برم.
سه شنبه 8 اسفند 1396 04:52 ب.ظ
از به اشتراک گذاری اطلاعاتتان تشکر. من واقعا از تلاش های شما قدردانی می کنم و بار دیگر از نوشتن نظرات بعدی خود انتظار دارم.
پنجشنبه 7 دی 1396 09:22 ب.ظ
Heya je suis pour la première fois ici. Je suis tombé sur ce tableau et
Je trouve cela vraiment utile et cela m'a beaucoup aidé. J'espère encore présenter une chose et aider les autres comme vous
شنبه 29 مهر 1396 09:09 ق.ظ
Hi my family member! I want to say that this article is amazing,
great written and include approximately all important infos.
I'd like to look extra posts like this .
دوشنبه 20 شهریور 1396 04:56 ب.ظ
ما وبلاگ خود را کاملا دوست داریم و بسیاری از پست های شما را پیدا می کنیم که فقط من هستم
به دنبال آیا یکی از نویسندگان مهمان به آن پیشنهاد می دهد؟
مطالب را برای شما بنویسید؟ من نمیدانستم یک پست یا چندین مقاله درباره آن بنویسم
سوالاتی که با آن در اینجا بنویسید
باز هم، وبلاگ بسیار جذاب!
دوشنبه 20 شهریور 1396 11:49 ق.ظ
شما خیلی عالی هستید فکر نمی کنم یک چیز واحد را بخوانم
این قبیله خیلی عالی است که شخص دیگری را با برخی از منحصر به فرد پیدا کنید
افکار در مورد این موضوع. به طور جدی.. با تشکر از شما برای شروع این.
این وبسایت چیزی است که در وب مورد نیاز است، کسی
با کمی اصالت!
دوشنبه 20 شهریور 1396 09:44 ق.ظ
این کار را ادامه دهید، کار عالی!
دوشنبه 20 شهریور 1396 09:14 ق.ظ
باور نکردنی! این وبلاگ دقیقا مثل یک پیرمرد من است! این موضوع کاملا متفاوت است
اما تقریبا همان طرح صفحه و
طرح. انتخاب های عالی رنگ!
دوشنبه 20 شهریور 1396 07:11 ق.ظ
من مطمئن نیستم که شما اطلاعات خود را دریافت می کنید، اما موضوع عالی است.
من نیاز به صرف زمان بیشتری برای یادگیری بیشتر و یا درک بیشتر.
با تشکر از اطلاعات فوق العاده من به دنبال این اطلاعات برای
دوشنبه 20 شهریور 1396 01:11 ق.ظ
hello there and thank you for your information – I have
definitely picked up anything new from right here. I did however expertise several technical issues using this site, since I experienced
to reload the website many times previous to I could get it to load correctly.
I had been wondering if your hosting is OK? Not that I'm complaining, but sluggish loading instances times will sometimes affect
your placement in google and could damage your
high quality score if ads and marketing with Adwords.
Well I'm adding this RSS to my e-mail and can look out for a lot more of
your respective interesting content. Make sure you update this again soon.
پنجشنبه 16 شهریور 1396 05:04 ق.ظ
Hello there! Do you know if they make any plugins to help with Search Engine Optimization? I'm trying
to get my blog to rank for some targeted keywords but
I'm not seeing very good gains. If you know of any please share.
شنبه 4 شهریور 1396 11:16 ب.ظ
Hi there! I know this is kind of off topic but I was wondering if you
knew where I could find a captcha plugin for my comment
form? I'm using the same blog platform as yours and I'm having trouble finding one?
Thanks a lot!